There are four conventionally accepted fundamental interactions aka forces of the universe
- Gravitational, electromagnetic, and strong/weak
Each one is described mathematically as a field.
- Gravitational force, deals with the fabric of the Void aka “dark matter” and is bound by the curvature of spacetime. The Void/Vacuum aka the space between stars is full of particles that are simultaneously created and annihilated. Thus empty space is in fact simultaneously full as well. Energy is finite so nothing with mass can reach the speed of light. Not even light can reach the speed of light. As a photon reaches speed ‘c’ its waves are flattened, it loses its wavelength (energy) and goes back into being the void of outer space. If you slow down the system it reappears as required by all local space-time conditions.
- Electromagnetic force is responsible for most phenomena in daily life with exception to gravity. All forces involving atom interaction can be explained by the electromagnetic force inside electrically charged atoms and their electrons. Electromagnetic forces also explain how these particles carry momentum by their movement. This explains the force we experience in “pushing” or “pulling” when current is sent through a conductor. Such as lightning attracted to its oppositly charged destination. The visible results are only the aftermath of when negative and positive electrons have already moved or exchanged those particles.
- Strong/Weak aka Fusion/Fission forces are responsible for nuclear energy and is very much like the atomic energy found within stars. Energy is released when a nucleus is created from free nucleons or other nuclei. These forces are found within the atom and are responsible for holding the nucleus together. Strong nuclear force holds most ordinary matter together because it confines quarks into hadron particles such as the proton and nuetron. This force binds neutrons and protons together to create the atomic nuclei. Weak force is responsible for radioactive decay which is essential for fission and the recycling of the the universe.
All fundamental forces are believed to be related, and to unite into a single force at high energies on a minuscule scale, the Planck scale, but particle accelerators cannot produce the enormous energies required to create experiment efforts.
“The theory of everything” is a holy grail theory it is also known as “The unified field theory” UFT
- It’s pursuit is to devise a common theoretical framework that would explain the relation between all the forces. This is perhaps the greatest goal of theoretical physicists today.